Πέμπτη, 19 Ιουλίου 2012

Present and Past Tenses !!




Present Simple
Use

1. We use the present simple tense for activities that happen again and again (everyday, sometimes, ever, never).
I sometimes go to school by bike. You don't speak Greek. Do they get up early?
He often travels. She doesn't work. Does she ever help you?

2. We use it for facts that are always true.
Our planet moves round the sun. Lions eat meat.

3. With a future time expression (tomorrow, next week) we use the present simple for planned future events (timetables).
The train leaves at 8.15. They return tonight.




Present Continuous
Use

1. We use the present continuous for an activity that is happening just now.
I am learning English at the moment. You aren't listening! Why is he sitting here?


2. We use it for an action happening about this time (today, this week), but not necessarily at the moment  of speaking. It is a temporary activity.
I am in London. I am staying at the hotel. (But just now you can be somewhere else.)
She can't go out. She is writing her essay today. (But she can be having lunch at the moment.)
You can't borrow this book today. Mary is reading it. (But not right now.)


3. With a future time expression (soon, on Monday) we use the present continuous for definite  arrangements in the near future. It is more personal than the present simple tense, because it expresses the speaker's plan.
I am leaving soon. We are meeting on Monday.



Present Tense – Simple or Progressive: Fill in the correct form.
Exercise

1. You can’t see Tom now. He _________________  a bath. (have)

2. He usually _________________  coffee, but today he _________________  tea.(drink, drink)

3. I won’t go out now because it _________________  and I _________________  an umbrella.(rain,
not have)

4. In Spain women usually _________________  hats.(not wear)

5. Who _________________  that terrible noise? It is John. He _________________  his nose.(make,
blow)

6. My dentist always keeps _________________  me to clean my teeth. I hate that. (tell)

7. He never _________________  to the theatre. (go)

8. I _________________  this weekend in Eastbourne. I _________________  there nearly every
week. (spend, go)

9. My wife always keeps _________________  for more money at the end of the week.(ask)

10. Who _________________  to on the phone? (you speak)

11. Anne _________________  all her clothes. At the moment she _________________  a dress for
herself. (make, make)

12. What’s that smell? Something _________________  in the kitchen. (burn)

13. I _________________  overtime this month because I _________________  up to buy a new car.
(work, save)

14. He _________________  thirty cigarettes a day but at the moment he _________________  very
hard to stop. (smoke, try)

15. The sun _________________  in the east and _________________  in the west. (rise, set)

16. She usually _________________  languages very fast but she _________________  problems with
Chinese at the moment. (learn, have)

17. He never _________________  to the theatre. (go)

18. Do _________________  television every night? (you watch)

19. He always _________________  his bills on time. (pay)

20. My father usually _________________  his breakfast at eight. (eat)

21. How long _________________  to get to the office? It _________________  me half an hour.  (it
take, take)

22. The boat _________________  Victoria Station at 9. (leave)

23. _________________  how old I am? (you know)

24. Jane’s husband _________________  . (not smoke)

25. It _________________  in Egypt. (not often rain)

26. Florence _________________  on the river Arno. (lie)

27. He usually _________________  so quickly that I _________________  him. (speak, not
understand)

28. How _________________  to work? – I usually _________________  by car but tomorrow I
_________________  in Tom’s car. (you get, go, go)

29. Why _________________  on your raincoat? – I _________________  for a walk. –
_________________  to come with me? (you put, go, you want)

30. I always _________________  lottery tickets but I never _________________  .(buy, win)

31. _________________  him? – I _________________  him, but I _________________  him. (you love,
like, not love)

32. _________________  him tonight? – Yes, I always _________________  to him on his birthday.
_________________  to send him a message? (you write, write, you want)

33. That car _________________  a very strange noise. _________________  it’s all right? – Oh yes,
that noise _________________  . It always _________________  a noise like that. (make, you think,
not matter, make)

34. The plane that you _________________  at now _________________  for Paris. (look, take off)

35. What _________________  to his car now? – I think he _________________  it. (he do, polish)







The past simple tense

In the simple past tense there are two types of English verbs - regular and irregular verbs. They have different forms.
Regular verbs
Positive statement: I worked, He worked
Negative statement: I did not work (I didn't work), He did not work (He didn't work)
Question form: Did you work?
Negative question: Did you not work? (Didn't you work?)
In the past simple tense regular verbs are usually formed by -ed ending. It is the same for all persons, singular and plural.
Passive voice: The test was finished. The emails were sent. (See more at Active and passive voice.)
Spelling
We add -d (not -ed) to the verb that ends with -e: like - liked
If it ends with a consonant and -y, we change -y into -i: carry - carried, try - tried.
But: play - played, because it ends with a vowel and -y.
If it has only one syllable and ends with a vowel and a consonant, we double the consonant to keep the same pronunciation: stop - stopped. The same rule applies to the -l ending: travel - travelled.
Irregular verbs
All the irregular verbs have different forms. For example: choose - chose, draw - drew, drink - drank, meet - met, see - saw, think - thought. But the question and negative are made in the same way: I learnt - Did you learn? No, I did not learn.






Past Progressive

Use

The continuous tense is typically used:

1. To express the idea that an action in the past continuous started 
before the action expressed by the past simple and continued after it.
When she saw me, I was looking at the trees

(These two actions happened at the same time. I was looking at the trees for some time and she saw me in the middle of it.)

Compare:

When she saw me, I looked at the trees.
(These two actions happened one after another. First she saw me and then I looked at the trees.)

2. With a point in time to describe an action that started 
before that time and continued after it.
At 8 o'clock Jane was doing past simple exercises.
 (At 8 o'clock she was in the middle of the activity. She did not finish it.)

Compare:

At 8 o'clock Jane did past simple exercises
(She started the activity at 8 o'clock and finished it.)

3. The continuous is used to describe a situation, while the 
simple is used to express actions in stories.
The sun was shining. Jack and Jill were lying on the beach. Jack was reading a book and Jill was sleeping. All of a sudden, Jack raised his head. Jill woke up. Something happened.

4. The continuous tense describes an activity which was not finished 
in contrast with the simple past, which describes a completed activity.
I was reading a book yesterday. And today I am going to continue.
I read the book yesterday. I can lend it to you now.

5. The continuous can be used to show a more casual action, 
the simple 
is for a deliberate action:
I was talking to my neighbour yesterday. We had a nice chat
(I did not do it on purpose. We just met in the street.)
I talked to my neighbour yesterday. And he promised to help me
(I did it on purpose. I needed to ask him for help.)





Past Tense – Simple or Progressive: Fill in the correct form.
Exercise 


1. George ________________  off the ladder while he ________________  the ceiling. (fall, paint)

2. Last night I ________________  in bed when I suddenly ________________  a scream. (read, hear)

3. ________________  TV when I ________________  you? (you watch, phone)

4. Ann ________________  for me when I ________________  . (wait, arrive)

5. Maisie ________________  up the kitchen when John ________________  her to marry him.
(clean, ask)

6. The house ________________  £ 150,000 in 2003. (cost)

7. The fire _______________________ at six in the morning. (still burn)

8. My brother ________________  a new job a week ago (get).

9. Columbus ________________  America over 500 years ago (discover)

10. She ________________  not interested in the book because she ________________  it (be ,not
understand)

11. ________________  at school yesterday? (you be)

12. We ________________  in a house near the sea last summer (live)

13. She ________________  the piano very well when she ________________  young (can play, be)

14. She ________________  the office very early last night (leave).

15. I ________________  a friend while I ________________  the shopping (meet, do)

16. I ________________  for my things when I ________________  someone call my name (pay, hear)

17. I ________________  around and ________________  Judy. (turn, see)

18. She ________________  a bright yellow dress when I ________________  her last (wear, see)

19. We ________________  to have a cup of tea. (decide)

20. While the waiter ________________  up the pieces of glass he ________________  his finger (pick,
cut)

21. Then we ________________  the cafe and ________________  good bye (leave, say)

22. I ________________  the fire at six and it ________________  brightly when Tom came in at seven.
(light, still burn)

23. My dog ________________  along quietly when Mary’s Pekinese ________________  him. (walk,
attack)

24. When I ________________  she ________________  lunch. She said she always ________________  lunch at 12:30. (arrive, have, have)

25. What ________________  of his last book? –I ________________  it a lot (you think, like)

26. He suddenly ________________  that he ________________  in the wrong direction. (realize,
travel)

27. He ________________  guitar when someone ________________  the window and
________________  out a bucket of water. (play, open, throw)

28. He ________________  us to go out in the boat yesterday because a strong wind
________________  (not allow, blow)

29. The next day, as they ________________  that the police ________________  for them, they
________________  the coats in the woods and ________________  off in different directions.
(know, look, hide, go)

30. When I ________________  home they ________________  around a fire. Jack ________________ a crossword puzzle, Judy ________________  and the others ________________  . Mother ________________  at me and said : “ Come and sit down”  (come, sit, do, knit, read, smile)







Tired ? You deserve a break !!!!!



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